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天赋他责和天赋人权

天赋他责 和天赋人权

 

--写在大变革的年代

简介:对世界来说,现在正处于一股巨大的新生力量崛起之时。这检验着每股现存的不论大小力量的作用,是正面的还是反面的,世界正面临着重大选择。它还检验着每条理论正确与否,全面与否。不论是作为个人,还是现存力量,是成为促进人类不断进步,推动历史车轮向前的一分子,还是相反,每个人都要回答这问题,这些都要放在历史的长河中检验。
 

      以自由平等博爱为核心的旧的普世价值观,在人类争取平等的历史中确实起到过巨大作用。但时至今日,面对人类之间的恶斗及战争,又不能不说这一普世价值观所起到的消极作用。这一 "天赋人权"的普世价值观将为孔子老子在二千多年前提倡的经过提炼的"天赋他责"所代替。这一思想反映在孔子的"君君臣臣父父子子",老子的"上善若水,水善利万物而不争, 处众人之所恶"的思想。这里面谈到人与人相处的道理和每人的责任。

      很简单每一个人都有一个对他人的责任,为了他人的利益着想,至少不去伤害他人,不争抢他人的利益。而旧的普世价值观没有给出这一限制,而在鼓动人们为争取"我自己"的自由与平等,而不顾一切,而罔视他人,他人的利益,甚至不惜战争而进行争夺。

    只有在对所有他人负责的基础上,人类才能真正实现自由平等博爱,人类之间才不会有恶斗,而永享永世太平。 
 

正文:
      一个瑞士钟表匠出生的家庭教师在三百多年前破天荒地提出人生而平等。以后这一学说为杰佛逊发展成美国独立宣言,并第一次尝试,建立起美国,后人也逐步建立起自由平等博爱的普世价值观。但,在这普世价值下,我们看到人类却并没有真正的平等而言,杀戮也在为一部分人的自由旗号下自由的进行。人类经历过两次世界大战。人们之间的恶斗,相互之间的厮杀一天也没有停止过 。回顾历史,我们认为以"天赋人权"为核心的旧的普世原则有重大缺陷,在人权初步得到确立的今天,应予以代替。代替以"天赋他责",这一卢梭看到提及却沒有提出的人类天性。它的基本精神与包括孔子老子在内的中国古代先哲们所提倡的处人的基本精神相符合,深深扎根于中国几千年的文化之中。它将以崭新的精神制止人类的互相残杀而问世。

 

     一个新生的力量出现在东方的地平线上,它将改变新旧力量的对比。这应看作是人类的一大进步。不应当为了自己方的利益加以阻挠,这也是不可能阻挠的。人们应以互相对对方负责,不侵害对方的利益,因而共同发展。新生力量的出现,也不可避免的检讨过去的理论。凡是过去正确的理论,就要加以秉承;凡是有问题的,有缺陷的理论就要加以修改更正。新的理论为新生力量服务,新生的力量也需要新的理论,新的普世价值观来服务,同时对人类的理论也必将加以推进,更好地造福人类。
 

     “天赋他责”是说人生来,就有对他人的关心,同情和帮助的责任,并把它看作分内的义务。这一责任心开始是自发的,自然的,天生具有的。它也是人类生存所必需的,它限制了个人不顾他人利益的发展和侵占他人利益的行为。它保护了人类赖以生存的整个集体,因此也就保护了整个人类。这一责任贯穿人的始终,并决定着人类命运。由于每一个个人都是生活在集体中,人类是共同生活,每一个人正常生活都离不开集体,所以集体是人类生存的特征。只是有的人发展了这一责任,有的人逐步丧失了部分或大部分这一责任。这天生的对他人的责任,我们且管它叫“天赋他责”,或“自然责任心”。
 

     卢梭说过:“人之所以合群,是由于他的身体柔弱;我们之所以心爱人类,是由于我们有共同的苦难;如果我们不是人,我们对人类便没有任何责任了。对人的依赖,就是力量不足的表征:如果每一个人都不需要别人的帮助,我们就根本不想同人联合了。”我们当然是人,每一个人也都当然需要别人的帮助。所以我们对人类对就有了责任,并想和其他人联合。这就有人与人相互间的责任,并责无旁贷,就有了对别人帮助的责任。他把这有没有责任与我们是不是人这一最基本的事实挂钩,可见卢梭对这一责任看得多么基本和肯定,因而这责任也成为人类生存的第一要素。单个的人不足以抵抗猛兽的攻击,团结起来才有力量。有了这份对他人的责任,才可以使我们联合,保证我们生存下去。今天虽然科技发达了,但我们面对的是同样的问题,因为分裂的两派或几派,会在短期内掌握同样的高科技,想长期占绝对优势是不可能的。而且退一步想,即便军事上占了绝对优势,心理上却在派别中埋下了仇恨的种子,这要征服另一部分人也是不可能。这将会导致难以休止的竞争和毁灭对方的能力越来越大。不要忘记卢梭所说的人类早期住在山洞里的困难和那时的团结互助。团结起来,人类是不可战胜的!无休止的争斗下去,人类可能走向灭亡。因此,我们归结为对他人的责任心,这点多么重要!
 

      在各种良好的宗教信仰中,在各国优秀的文化中,在各国古代和现代的给人以启迪的哲学及教育中都是叫人为善做好事,并有各国的英雄很好地实践了。这当然主要指的就是为他人行善事,为弱者做好事,不损害别人并为此可以牺牲自己。这就是以他人的利益为重因而能维护我们这个集体很好生存的历史责任。中国文化的历史也曾深刻地说明了这“天赋他责”的原则,其精神也深深插根于中国文化长达几千的历史。中国在春秋战国时孔子就说过:“君君,臣臣,父父,子子”。这从行政讲到家庭,言简意赅。从君王皇帝讲到一般的百姓,从父亲讲到孩子,每一人都有这份责任。用现在的语言来说就是,总统要尽到总统的责任,官员要尽到官员的责任,父亲要尽到父亲的责任,孩子要尽到孩子的责任。这里谈到的主要责任一言瞥之可以最后归结到对他人的责任。老子在道德经中所说:“上善若水。水善利万物而不争, 处众人之所恶,故几于道。”。上善,就是人的最高的道德标准,就是对别人做出好事,对他人对相对的弱者的一种发自内心的帮助,像水那样对世间所有的人无所不在的滋润和相助,同时自己却不争抢好处,不争抢别人的利益。常作他人不愿做的事,就是牺牲自己的利益,为他人做好事,为他人负责。它是最高的,也是必须的,因而也是最基本的道德。我们应该像水那样相助,不争夺。毛泽东一生领导对旧势力的反抗。但当他作为一位诗人哲学家的时候讲道:“俏也不争春,只把春来报,待到山花烂漫时,它在丛中笑”。不争春,就是不争先,不争霸,就是不去侵犯争抢别人别的国家的利益,而“只把春来报”只为别人,别的国家做好事,从不和别人争利益。我们生活在当代的春秋战国时期,要以中国古代春秋战国时期先哲们的教导为训,但要高于他们。
    
     我们今天面对的是,一方面是人类与日俱增的团结与友爱,和高度发达的科技,创造了大量的财富,可基本满足全体人类过幸福的日子;一方面是一部分人不断加剧的相互仇恨,贫富加剧,和自我毁灭的大规模杀伤武器,并且在不断升级。何去何从?是什么使人类如此分裂?什么才能使人类团结象亲兄弟?如贝多芬在他的第九交响乐《欢乐颂》唱道:“欢乐女神圣洁美丽,灿烂光芒照大地!我们心中充满热情,来到你的圣殿里!你的力量能使人们,消除一切分歧,在你光辉照耀下面,四海之内皆成兄弟……亿万人民团结起来!大家相亲又相爱!…”。这是人们几百年上千年的愿望。考虑到对方,对他人他国他民族照顾的责任,理解别人,才是人类的唯一出路。这也是人类集体生活、集体劳动,人类共同追求幸福所必需的第一位的准则。
  
     如果说天赋人权发现了“人”,天赋他责可以说发现了人的“集合体” 。“天赋人权” 提倡人人要有基本的权利,人人要平等,人人有追求幸福的权利。“天赋他责” 提倡人人要对他人负责,并在这基础上实行这些自由平等博爱。要互相有责任照顾,并要以不伤害他人为准而共同追求幸福。按照“天赋人权”的原则不能将人类联合在一起,而按“天赋他责”的原则可将人们联合在一起。它应成为我们时代的最强音,人类的最基本的生存原则,尤其当我们已经初步确立起人人平等的今天,这对他人负责的原则尤为重要。
    
     人不是一般的动物,而是远比动物要高级的有意识的有发达智慧的集体生活的高级生物,和一般动物相比有着本质的不同。所以维系人类群体的最高原则必须要超过高过维系动物的原则。“天赋人权”的基本精神连一般的动物都具有,而“天赋他责”的原则就一般超越了动物生存的原则。有些动物有着对同类本族群的成员负责的初步精神,我们为之感动。这对他人的负责并为重的原则,这应是维持人类社会特有的原则。这一原则在动物界中很少有。动物都具有自我保护,自我追求其幸福的本能,但是大多以临为豁。它们在同类或不同族群之间争斗,或在同族中有严格的等级。人类必须摆脱互相争斗和相互残杀--这一野兽的行为。只有人类才有对他人负责的和平等相待的本能,因此它也是人与动物的重要区别。以照顾他人对他人负责,就会人与人生活在相互合作,相互信任和相互尊重,礼貌谦让之中,这应是人要继续生存下去的第一位准则。

 

     人在刚出生时,就享有父母的关爱,反之也有对父母的爱心,这种关爱,就是责任的外在的表现。这里面包含了今后稍微长大后发展为对父母的保护帮助及承担的愿望和责任。到其刚懂事时,就将这一关爱的责任转化为对家人关爱保护的责任。但作为人,他不会停留在只对家人的关爱之上,而是发展成为对外人乃至一切人、一切生灵关爱的责任。从成年人对婴幼儿那种自发的喜爱心境,到对任何人的喜爱和责任,相对的强者对相对的弱者的关爱与照顾和同情,以及同情弱者都是天然的。
 

 

     本来,人们从最初都能按“天赋他责”来办,就不会有漠视他人利益的行为。但人类早期,由于食物的短缺,而发生争夺,加之人类刚从动物界演变过来,就形成了对他人的漠视,怕他人外人侵占了自己的利益。有些人发展成以剥夺他人的利益为自己造福,不对他人的基本利益负责。人类须经过一段痛苦的慢慢消化漠视他人利益的人的过程,才能达到每人都对他人负责的新世界。

    

    “天赋他责”自然引伸出对别人什么负责?在法律下,对他人的生命,健康,安全,自由,财产,尊严,荣誉,文化,习惯,思想表达等等负责,有责任维护这些。这些享受照顾的人也同样要对别人负责。人们在“天赋他责”的原则下,就会很好地合作与联合。“天赋他责”包括了“天赋人权”所主张的一切合理的部分,但又没有停留在“天赋人权”的原则上,而是进了一步。如果人人都有责任相助,都不侵犯他人的利益,就能也才能真正实现人人平等及生命自由共同的幸福与安宁。

  

美国启蒙思想家杰斐逊在他主笔起草的美国《独立宣言》中指出 “我们认为这些真理是不言而喻的,人人生而平等,他们都从他们的造物主那里被赋予了某些不可转让的权利,其中包括生命权、自由权和追求幸福的权利。“天赋人权”就其本意来说,为反对不平等,反对人与人如同动物般的等级制度,在人类的历史上有着极大的意义。在对人不平等的人--—奴隶主或封建郡主面前,要求平等对“我”及每一个人,“我”应享受基本权利----“天赋人权”,在反不平等的斗争中,这一口号具有鲜明的特点。

 

自由平等博爱是不错的,但它没有揭示出避免人类恶斗和相互厮杀的要点,是含混的,人类不断加剧的争斗,也足以证明了它的不足。这一要点十分重要,是必须要明确揭示明白的。这不是小的遗漏,是重大的缺陷。它包含在“天赋他责”内,而且是维持我们这个群体所必需的。 可以说彻底的自由平等博爱在一定的程度上是可以避免人类的恶斗和相互的厮杀。但,我们说由于自由平等博爱并没有明确指出对他人的责任。

自由是很好的字眼,由于它没有很好的界定,因而给了一部份人可以为了自身的自由而对另一部份人加以压迫或杀戳。

平等,我们看到的却是贫富的加剧。人权可以是平等的(我们先说在人权平等的例子),但机会却是不平等的,最后的结果就是人的巨大的不平等。我们必须正视这一不平等。只有在对对方负责,照顾好对方的精神下,才有可能对贫富的差距加以适当的缩小,逐步最后走向人类的真正的平等;平等有二层含义,一是人的基本权力是否平等,而不管其他;二是人的权力的最终结果上是否平等 。人们要求在最终结果上平等一般就必然会要求人的基本权力上平等。而旧的普世价值观讲的平等主要就是讲人的基本权力上的平等,而沒有管最后结果的平等。中国古代的孔子就提出:“不患寡而患不均”。这提法在当时至到现在都无法执行。虽然有些超前,但它反映了人类的最终目标。人类最后结果是否平等取决于劳动与工作给全体人们带来的愉悦感的大小,这里主要是指客观上的。由于现代化努力的结果,人们从笨重的机械单调重复的劳动摆脱出来而逐步变为愉悦的事,人们逐步不需要靠劳动的强度,来努力以满足自己的需要。而由于对他人负责的加强而使个人的欲望得到自发和自觉的控制,人类的平等就不仅是基本权力的平等,而是最后结果的平等。这是真正意义上的平等。实现孔子的几千年的愿望。当然这不是要求绝对的平等,这也是不可能的。人是会有生理和心理的差别,因而需求在任何时候都不会绝对相等。这里对他人的责任心也非常重要。

博爱是责任外在的重要表现,实质是保护帮助承担的愿望和责任。但,博爱远远没有对他人的责任含义广,含义明确。这一责任包括了对他人的保护,关爱,义务,承担,和对他人的尊重,谦虚,礼貌,信任。这一责任明确了不能伤害他人的利益。

因此,“天赋他责”比自由平等博爱更高一层,是避免人类恶斗和厮杀的原则。它是人类天生具有的,因而也是人类生存更基本更必须的。它必将以更响亮的音符在人类中唱起。

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在实际中,我们看到,强者那里有不再强调人人平等的倾向,而单纯重点强调自我,成为单纯的自我追求幸福。在任何情况下自己都成为首先的出发点,而不管侵犯没有侵犯别人的利益,在多数情况下侵犯了别人的利益。这成为部分人现在的“天赋人权”观。这曲解了或阉割了“天赋人权”的基本原则。以自己为中心,就可能侵犯或伤害他人。而伤害他人的利益,就不可能不引起他人的反抗,自己也不会有安宁的日子。通过杀人武器的升级,不能达到自己的安宁。再聪明的机器最终代替不了人,也无法彻底杀光和取代反对你的一部分人。依靠武力永远也取得不了人类的平等,更不用说博爱。老子说过:“民不畏死,奈何以死惧之”。所以人连死都不怕,更不用说新式武器了。被新式武器吓怕了而不敢反抗的民族,在人类的历史中鲜为所见只有通过不去侵犯他人的利益,强者有责任真心的帮助较弱者,强者才可逐步地获得弱者的理解。强者最终会明白,给他人以安宁,自己才得安宁,大家共同享用人类的安宁。

“天赋人权”由于没有讲对他人负责,而单纯的讲人有追求幸福的权利,叫人容易理解我自己可以追求我的无限幸福。而单纯以自己为出发点,自己可以无限追求幸福就会弱肉强食,更会人与人之间因为各自追求“天赋权利”而处于冲突状态,正如我们现在所看到的一切。即当我主张我的权利的时候,你主张你的同样的权利。人们相互要求权利。最后的结果是人与人之间的恶斗或者在暂时取得脆弱的平衡下互相尊重。这第二点接近天赋他责的原则,但人们在主观上远不是自觉认识到这应是不能侵犯他人要互相谦让互相尊重为最高最终原则的结果,而是由于实力差不多暂时取得的结果。这暂时的平衡很容易被打破,而人们很容易又陷入恶斗之中;人要求安全没错,但如果以牺牲他人的利益为代价,就会人与人之间互相猜忌对方是否会伤及自己,就会威胁对方(如果比对方强大的话),甚至动武动粗,以至到现在发明了只要动下手就可能摧毁他人的原子弹和导弹;人要有追求幸福的权利,就要求名誉,但这追求幸福却没有限制,于是人与人之间就产生了对他人的藐视,以确保自己的名誉。卢梭说过:“我们之所以产生嫉妒的心理,是由于社会的欲望,而不是原始的本能”,这说明了嫉妒产生于过分的追求“自己的幸福”这一社会后天的欲望,而不是先天的。        总之,按照现在部分人所强调的“天赋人权”,人们以自我为中心,人们就会生活在恶性竞争、猜忌和藐视的环境下。

作为人对人相处的最高的准则,老子在<道德经>中说: 曲则全,枉则直,洼则盈,敝则新,少则得,多则惑…… 是以圣人抱一为天下式。不自见,故明;不自是,故彰;不自伐,故有功;不自矜,故长。”这十分辩证的讲了和他人相处的道理。这里面讲的曲、枉、洼、蔽、少,指的是曲折、冤枉、低洼、陈旧、少量。对一般的人来说,这些皆为吃亏的地方。可圣人作为处事的最高标准,应为之。因为那些对自己吃亏的地方,就必定对别人有好处,就会转化为全、直、盈、新、得,即是全面、真相、充满、崭新、得到、等积极的因素。圣人应该不自见、不自视、不自伐、不自矜,这些含义为不要自我表扬,不要自以为是,不要自我夸耀,不要自我矜持,因为那些是藐视和敌视别人的行为,圣人因该尽量避免。对他人尽责尽力,自己不要争风自傲,不要蔑视别人的存在,不以他人的利益为代价,自己谦虚谨慎,甚至牺牲自己的利益,才会长久。

因此,人们应该很好的检讨自己的行为,看一下哪些行为是侵犯了别人的利益,别人的权力。这些行为那怕自己认为是为了任何“正义”,也不应做。因为由于人们的立场不同,可能你看好的事我看坏。这可能侵害了好事,而可能会越搞越糟。邪恶的事情让他们自己去纠正,历史会纠正的。相信正义一定会压邪。或通过联合国依靠世界集体的力量来纠正人们共同认为邪恶的事情,而避免从一个国家的角度看问题。而越俎代庖,假借正义名字,实质为了自己的利益,干伤天害理的事就更为天理所不容。这样破坏了“天赋他责”不侵害他人权利的原则。如有侵害别人利益的行为,则必须加以纠正。以不伤害对方为限,能达到保护好自己的利益为限。当然这里的呼吁,会和实际有很大差别,利益的退让不是简单的问题。但讲出这点总能增加一点儿纠错的正能量。旧的普世价值能引发人类的分裂,并有如此多的问题,它必然要被更全面的并能促进人类团结的新的普世价值所代替,人们也不应该抱残守缺而应该以滿腔热情迎接新的普世价值。

新生力量的诞生必然会打破现存的全球的力量平衡,改变现有的力量的比例关系,改变现有的利益关系。但,这并不一定意味着非要求现在已存的力量必须退让。退让与否,要看现有的力量存在的理由。现存的利益主要分三种理由在世界上存在:一是本国本民族的基本利益,这是不能被侵占。侵占就是侵略行为,不能为之,没有退让的问题;第二种利益是由于种种历史原因,现有力量占据原先应属于別国的利益。这种利益,必须退让,按照天赋他责的原则,就应该随时准备退让给利益应属国。第三种是真空地带,利益不属于任何国家,不须退让。不是退让的问题,它连同真心帮助他国的努力而是如何共享共赢的问题,是整体做大利益,共同发展壮大的问题。各种利益的比例关系是会而且一定会变化,但各自所占的利益数量并不会发生重大变化。如果说有变化,也是由于共同开发,只会有增长的变化。  

新的力量今后是不是惠及他国,还是侵占他国的利益,这是新生力量是好还是坏的分水岭:第一种力量一旦产生就会帮助后进的较弱的国家,用贸易投资服务交流等方式共同发展经济,这是善良积极的力量。这是不能加以阻挡的,也是阻挡不住的。阻挡者只会落得个自己身败名裂。这种力量今后可能还会产生,如阿拉伯中东地区和非洲地区。这是人类的进步,是应欢迎的。第二种力量一旦产生,在过去是进行烧杀强掠,掠地攻城。现在是为了侵占别国的自然资源而将自己的军事势力不断扩大到別国,不断发动战争,侵占他国的利益。在人类的历史上,尤其重者如第二次世界大战前的法西斯德国和法西斯军国主义日本。这是一种邪恶的力量,必须加以警惕和防止,加以消灭。

国家要生存,要生存在一个共同的家园---我们的地球上,就要共同命运。这包括对内和对外。对内,统治者必须对人民负责,人人对他人负责。对外,一个强大的国家,必须对其他的特别是弱小的国家负责。强国有义务帮助比较弱小的国家。这也就不会制造什么日耳曼族或大和民族比别的种族优秀之说,就不会有法西斯及军国主义为争夺别国的资源而发动战争,屠杀几千万的人;就会尊重别的国家的发展,不会把自己的制度看的比别的制度优秀,硬要加在别国之上,甚至不惜借此使用军事手段,使几十万人遭杀害与流离失所,这与“种族优秀”之说差不多;就不会发动 911”恐怖袭击,使几千无辜的人丧生。总之,做事之前,要先想到对别人别国负责,想到“天赋他责”而不仅是“天赋人权”,以侵害别的国家民族的利益为代价而把自己的利益,把自己的国家,把自己的民族利益摆在特殊的地位。

公司工厂企业,要靠集体的力量来完成生产。这要求,他的领导者,老板首先必须要对他人负责,要对工人员工负责,反之亦然;而工人或员工之间要互相负责。

一个家庭,父母孩子要各尽其责,父母对孩子要关爱和教育,和孩子长大后,要扶老携幼,体现强者对弱者的照顾。

各国的英雄,各国的民族英雄,之所以为人们敬仰,就是因为他们都是牺牲自己,为了他人而高度的负责。是他们不以牺牲别的国家或民族的利益,而为了他人,为了这个国家,为了这个民族高度负责。各国的英雄都是为了他人的榜样,激励着我们,深深地感动着我们。只有不以牺牲别的国家别的民族的利益为代价,才可在历史上称得上英雄。也只有承认对他人的“天赋他责”至高无上,才能有各国英雄及民族英雄的至高无上的崇高地位。

按照阶级性来说并不能很有说服力地评判“天赋人权”的原则,因为工人也是个人所组成,怎么说一个个人也需要平等,也需要基本的权利。但,他们更需要有责任心的对待,更好的照顾,相互间也要互有责任心。

天赋人权具有鲜明的特点。但鲜明性未必是全面性。所以,当人的平等得到初步确认后,“天赋人权”的口号的局限性消极一面就突显出来,特别是加上一些人的曲解。这一原则使人们之间充满了破坏性的竞争,无休止的恶斗。这些行为从理论上从哲学上来说,皆是因为“天赋人权”所讲的人有追求幸福的权利,尤为一些人加以夸大歪曲为我有无限追求幸福的权利,在任何事都以我为先为尊。这已不是要求人人平等,而是在牺牲别的人,别的国家别的民族的利益下,要求自我,或自我的国家自我的民族的利益。以至先人们在无奈之下从理论上要求人们必须放弃一部份或乃至全部的基本权利才能组成联合体---国家。

在个人追求幸福与共同追求幸福而要求对他人负责面前,卢梭为反对不平等选择了前者,而在为达到集体共同追求幸福的努力中------建立国家,他要求每一个人放弃自己全部的权利。卢梭在社会契约论中说 每个加盟成员都把自己的权利奉献给整个社会”,“而且,此等奉献既然毫无保留,这样的集体就完美,每一个人都不会过分地要求:只要有一个人还保有他的权利,他迟早会在某一事例上开始特立独行,在个人和社会等事物上不受任何权威的约束。这里卢梭让人们放弃全部的基本权利就反映出“天赋人权”理论具有我们前面提到的重大缺陷。放弃自己的基本权利,这是不可能的也是不需要的。而需要的是适当的限制自己的各种权利,即不得侵犯他人的利益,对他人负责就够了。社会不能提倡一个人无限制地追求个人的幸福和财产,尤其不能以牺牲他人利益为代价,这就成为完全的自私而不顾及他人。必须要以人与人的平等为限制,而不仅是人的平等,这两者之间有很大的差异。树立为他人负责,以全体人类的福祉为出发点,直至牺牲自己的利益。 这点在“天赋他责”的基本原则里是非常明确的。因此有了“天赋他责”,人们就有了中国前人提倡的谦让精神,就会主动限制自己的过分要求,而达到和谐相处的美好境地。人类才不会在恶性竞争中自我毁灭,才会在共同的集体生活与劳动中生存,才能共同追求幸福。才可以组成联合体管理国家和这个世界并得到永存。(2015/6/20修改)

注:英文版请见下页

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Natural Responsibilities for the others and Natural Rights of Men

                 --written in years of the big changes and reforms

Brief:   The world today sees the new big power is rising. This tests the roles of the each large or small powers now existing, be positive or negative, the world is facing a major choice of it. It also tests each principle, be correct or not, and comprehensive or not. As an individual and the existing powers, it is to promote human progress, push forward the wheel of history, or on the contrary. Everyone has to answer this question; they are in tests in the long history.

 

Freedom Equality and Philanthropism, as the core of the old universal values, did ever play the great roles in the human history for equality. But today, in the face of vicious fights and wars among human beings, we cannot but speak out of the negative effect which this old universal values functions. This universal value of "natural rights of men" should be replaced by the refined “natural responsibilities for others” advocated by Confucius and Lao Zi in the years of more than two thousand ago. This thought is reflected in the “The Monarch does Monarch’s, Minister does minister’s, Father does father’s, Son does son’s” by Confucius, and “The best virtue is like water. Water benefits everything but never contends with its own contributions. Stay in the places all of others do not want” by Lao Zi. They talked about the principles on how each person gets along with others and the responsibilities of everyone to the others.

 

It is very simple everyone has a responsibilities for others, and considers the interests of others, at least doesn't hurt others, doesn't encroach upon the interests of others. The old universal value does not give thus restriction. It encourages people to strive for "myself" freedom and equality regardless anything else, being inconsiderate to the others and the interests of others, and even to spare no wars and vicious fights.

 

Only on the basis of the responsibilities for all of the others, can human beings realize the true Freedom Equality and Philanthropism, and have no the vicious fights among the human beings, and enjoy the eternal peace for whatever long.

 

More than three hundreds of years ago, a tutor born in a Swiss watchmaker family for the first time put forward man is born equal. After that Jefferson developed the theory into < the American Declaration of Independence>. For the first time in an attempt, he jointly established the United States. Also the others gradually established the universal value of freedom Equality and philanthropism. But, under the universal value, we see the human are not really equal, and killings under freedom for one part of people, have been freely going on in many areas and since then on. The human beings experienced the two world wars. The people have never stopped vicious fights and killings for one day. Reviewing this history, we think that the principle of "natural rights of men" as the core of the old universal value has major defects, and with today that the human rights in the world are preliminarily established, should be replaced and substituted with the new one as "natural responsibilities of the others". As human’s nature, Rousseau saw and ever mentioned this, but did not put forward it. Its basic spirit is consistent with the basic spirit advocated by the ancient Chinese philosophers, including Confucius, Lao Zi and that they taught how to treat other people. It is deeply rooted in the Chinese culture of several thousand years. It will be also available in the world as a fresh spirit especially pointing to stopping human killings to each other.

 

A newborn strength appeared on the eastern horizon. It has definitely changed the balance of the powers of the old and the new. This should be seen as a big progress for mankind, and should not be blocked for one’s own interests, and it is impossible to do so. By being responsible for each other, not infringing on the interests of each other, can the people commonly develop himself in the World. The new force appeared also inevitably reviews the past theories. All past correct theories will be followed, those have the defective problems will be modified and revised. The new theory serves new the power; the new power also needs a new theory, new universal value to serve. At the same time they will certainly make human theories progress and benefit mankind.

 

“Natural responsibilities for others” says: that man is born with the responsibilities for others’ cares, sympathies and helps, and it is seen as one’s own obligation and duties. These senses of responsibilities are spontaneous, natural, born with them. They are necessary for human survivals. They restrict the individual developments regardless of the interests of others and the behaviors that encroach upon the interests of others. It protects the collectives that human beings rely on, thus protects the entire human race. These responsibilities run throughout the life of a man, and determine the human’s destiny. Because normally everyone can only live in a collective and spend a common life, and cannot leave a collective. So the collective is a character of the human survival. The only difference is some people develop these responsibilities in late stage and some people gradually lose a part or the most part of the responsibilities. We call it as “the natural responsibilities for others”, or "natural sense of responsibilities” for now.       

 

Rousseau once said: "The reason that men like to live together is due to their weakness in their bodies; the reason that we love the human is because we used to have been suffers together; if we were not human beings, we would not have any responsibilities for the human beings. Dependence on others is to show the power shortage of men: if everyone did not need others' help, then we would not want to unite with the men “(translation according to its Chinese version). Of course we are the human beings, Of course everyone needs other’s helps, so we have these responsibilities for human beings and want to unite with others, Therefore there are the mutual responsibilities between human beings. He put that we have the responsibilities or not with that we are the men or not, this most basic fact. From it we can see that how firm and basic Rousseau saw these responsibilities are, and therefore they are the first element for human survival. A single man is not strong enough to resist the attack of a beast, but unite, men will have powers. They are the responsibilities for others. And only we have these responsibilities, can we unite together. And therefore these responsibilities ensure our survival. Although our sciences and technologies have been so developed today, we are facing the same problems. Because the each side of the two parties or more parties will also master the same high-tech in the short term, and keep the absolute dominant for longer term is impossible. And step back to think, let’s say one side kept the absolute military advantage, but psychologically has planted the seeds of hatred among the opposite party. This would make it impossible to conquer the other side. This will only lead to the unstopped competitions and the stronger ability to destroy each other. Don't forget the suffers and mutual assistances as Rousseau once mentioned that the early men were ever facing when they lived in caves. To unite, human beings are invincible! The endless fighting, mankind will possibly perish. Therefore, how important this sense of “responsibilities for others” we summed up is!  

 

The various kinds of the good religions and the faiths, the excellent ancient and modern cultures of all countries, the enlightenment philosophies and educations of various countries all teach people to do good and nice things, and the heroes of all countries are good practitioners. Surely it mainly means the one should not hurt other people and should do the good things for others and the nice things for the weaker even at their own expenses. These are the historical responsibilities for the others to keep our collectives for our well survivals. The history of Chinese culture has also profoundly illustrated the principle of the "natural responsibilities for others" and its principle has been deeply rooted in Chinese culture in the history of thousands years. During the periods of Spring and Autumn and the Warring States in the ancient China, Confucius said: The Monarch does Monarch’s, Minister does minister’s, Father does father’s, Son does son’s. This taught from the administrations to familiesthe speech is concise but comprehensive . In today's language it is that the President should do well the President's responsibilities, officials should fulfill officials’ responsibilities, fathers should do fathers’ responsibilities, children should do the children's responsibilities. The responsibilities mentioned here end up with the responsibilities for the others by one word at the last. Lao Zi in the ancient China once said: “ The best virtue is like water. Water benefits everything but never contends with its own contributions. Stay in places all of the others do not want, that ‘s near to Dao.” The best virtue is the highest moral standards, people make good for the others, help the others and the relative weaker from the bottom of heart. Like water, it helps all the people in the world and nourishes them and assists others for everything and everywhere, but never fights for any benefits and does not wants any interests of others. It is the highest virtue standard, and is also a must and therefore a basic morality, and should help each other. We should often make something which other people don't want to do even at our own expenses, do nice things for others, and be responsible for others.  Mao Zedong led the struggles against the old and bad powers In his whole life. But as a poet and a philosopher, he said: "Though it is fair enough, never rivals with the spring. And as a season’s harbinger, it only declares whether the spring will come or not. When the hundred flowers bloom the hills, she smiles amongst the crow.” “Never rival with the spring” means never fight for the dominant states and the hegemony, and means it will not infringe upon the interests of other people and other countries.  "It only declares whether the spring comes or not” means we only do the good for others and the other countries and never fight for other’s interests. We live in a period of modern “Spring and Autumn and the Warring States”, and should study these teachings of the former philosophers in the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States in ancient China as will but overpass them.

 

What we are facing today, on the one hand, are the growing  solidarities and friendships among the people, and highly developed sciences and technologies, a lot of wealth we have made which can basically satisfy human’s happy lives; however on the other hand, are the growing hatred among the peoples, increasing gaps between the rich and the poor, and the mass destruction weapons which can be mankind self destructed and be constantly escalating. Where to go? What have made humans beings so divided? What can make human beings unite like brothers? Beethoven in his ninth symphony "Ode to Joy" sings: "Goddess of Joy is holy and beautiful; her bright light shines on the earth! With our hearts full of enthusiasm, we come to your holy temple! Your strength can eliminate all differences among the people. Below your shine, the people the world over are like brothers …….The hundreds of millions of people unite! Everybody loves each other!..." (translated according to its Chinese version and may have a deference with its original). This is the people’s wish of hundreds of years. It is the only way out for the human beings by considering the others, giving your responsibilities for the other countries, other nations, understanding the others. This is also the first rule necessary to the collective lives and the collective labors for human beings in the common pursuit of happiness.

 

If we say natural rights of men found the "man", we can say natural responsibilities for the others found “collective of men”. “The natural rights of men” says everyone has the basic rights, everyone should be equal, and everyone has the right in pursuit of the happiness. The “natural responsibilities for the others” teaches everyone has a responsibilities for the others, based on which the freedom equality and philanthropism can entirely be realized. And everyone has the responsibility to take cares each other, and will be subject to not hurt others as a standard and so does in the common pursuit of happiness. According to the principle of “natural rights of men”, it cannot unite the human beings, and according to “the natural responsibilities for the others” only, can human beings unite together. It should be the most fundamental principle for the human survival of our times, especially when we have preliminarily set up the equality for everyone today, this principle is especially important.

 

Men are not ordinary animals, but more advanced creatures which have the consciousnesses, developed intelligences and collectively live, that is much advanced than the animals. Compared with the ordinary animals, human beings are so much different in nature. So the supreme principle for the survival of humans must be higher than the principle for animals’ survival. The principle of “natural rights of men” is something that ordinary animals have for their own survivals. But “natural responsibilities for the others” is the principle that surpasses the same for the animal survivals. Some animals have preliminary responsibilities for the same kind in the same group, we are moved for it. In general, it should be the unique principle for human’s society. This principle is very rare in the animal kingdoms. In general, the animals are egocentrism in pursuit of happiness as an instinct and self-protective. And most of them are clear from the dangerous from others. They fight among the same kinds in different groups, or have a strict hierarchy in the same groups. Only human beings can be responsible to equally treat others as an instinct, so it is an important difference between humans and animals. By taking care of others and to be responsible for others, human beings can live in mutual co-operations, mutual trusts and mutual respects, and live in courtesy and humility. This should be the principle of the continuous survival for human beings prior to all other issues.

 

At birth, a baby enjoys the love from his parents and in turn also has the love for his parents. This kind of love has a kind of responsibilities. When he grows up old enough, he will develop his responsibilities to protect, help and undertake to his parent, will widen these responsibilities of cares into the responsibilities for the all family's members when he is old enough. But as a man, he will not stops on only to the family's concern, but develops it to the responsibilities for the other people and even to the loves to all people, all living creatures. The adults’ loves and cares for the infants and the young, and therefore the responsibilities for anybody from the spontaneous state of mind, the loves, cares and sympathies from stronger to the weaker. All of these prove the responsibilities for the others. At the beginning of mankind, if everyone could treat every other according to “natural responsibilities for the other” as their nature, there would have not been people ignoring the others. But at the early dates, due to the shortage of foods and because mankind had just evaluated from the animals for short time, there was some ones who ignored the others’ interests and worried about the external people to encroach upon their own interests. This even developed to take advantages of the others’ interests for their own benefits, not be responsible for the others at all. Human beings have to go through this painful and slow process of digestion of the people who constantly encroach upon the others’ interests before we can reach the new world where everyone is responsible to the others.

 

“The natural responsibilities for others” naturally leads to for what the responsibilities for others are? Under the law, the responsibilities are for the lives of the others, their health, safeties, liberties, properties, dignities, honors, cultures, habits, ideas and so on, and it is responsible to safeguard these. Those who enjoy cares are also responsible to others as well. Under the principle of "natural responsibilities for others", people can unite and make good co-operations. “Natural responsibilities of others” includes the all reasonable parts advocated by "natural rights of men", but doesn't stop in the principle of "natural rights of men", it steps forward. If everyone has responsibilities to help each others, does not encroach upon the others’ interests, and be truly equal, and the life, the freedom, the common happiness and the peace for everybody can be realized in their real meanings.

 

Jefferson, the American enlightenment thinkers led to draftThe Declaration of Independenceof the United States, it said that "we hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator certain. Unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.  “Natural rights of men” in terms of its original intention, opposed to inequality, and the hierarchy of human beings like animals. It had great significance in human history. In front of the slave owners or the feudal monarch who treat to others unequal, “I” should ask for the equality for "Me" and every one of us, "I" should enjoy basic rights - "natural rights of men". In the struggle against inequality, “natural rights of men" has the vivid features.

 

Freedom and equality philanthropism are good, but they did not show the main point to avoid human’s vicious fights and killings each other.  It is vague in term of this sense. And the increasing vicious fights among human have also proved it. This is important point which must be revealed clearly very much. This is not a little omission, but a major defective problem. This main point is included in the "natural responsibilities for others”. And It is absolutely necessary to survive our mankind. The complete freedom equality and philanthropism can avoid human’s vicious fights to each other in a certain degree. But what we need to point out that because the so called universal value of “the freedom equality and philanthropism” does not explicitly point out that the responsibilities for others.

 

The freedom is a beautiful word but because it is not clearly defined and restricted, and thus gives a part of people freedoms to kill the opposite and the other people for their own freedom.

 

Talking about equality, what we can see is widening gaps between the rich and the poor. And the human rights can be equal (we first talk about the case where the human rights are equal basically), but the opportunities people is facing are not equal and different, so the final results are hugely not equal to everyone. We should do something about it. Only according to the spirit of responsibility for each other, taking good care of each other, can we be closing the gap between the rich and the poor gradually and properly, step by step, and can we achieve the real equality of human beings at last. The equality has two basic meanings. First one means merely the basic rights people have are equal or not, which are regardless of the other issues. The second one means whether the final results people have are equal or not. If people ask for the equal final results, this will inevitably require the basic rights to be equal in general. The equality the old universal values talk about and mainly mean the equality in the basic rights, without the meaning of the final results. Confucius in ancient China put forward: "What we worry about is not a few that we have but the inequality to share". This idea could not have been carried out from then on to the present time. Although it was a bit too early to put forward, it reflects our ultimate goal. What human beings are equal or not in the final results depends on the quantity of pleasures and joys that the main part of the people feel in their daily labor and works. Here we mainly refer to its objective. As a result of modernization efforts, people will be free from heavy mechanical monotonous and repetitive labors which gradually become pleasant things. People will not need to depend on the intensity of labors to meet their needs, because the sense of responsibilities for others will have been consolidated gradually, the individual’s desires for any things will get spontaneously and consciously controlled. The equality of human beings does not only mean the basic rights, but the final results as well. This is the equality in term of its real sense. The wish Confucius once had thousands years ago can be realized. Of course, this will not require an absolute equality. There will be the physiological and psychological differences in any future. Here the sense of responsibilities for others is also very important.

 

Philanthropism is that the responsibilities for others are importantly showing externally. Its solid core means the responsibilities of the safeguards, the helps and the undertakings. But the philanthropism by far does not mean as widely and clearly as the responsibilities for the others do. “Responsibilities for the others” means the safeguard, loves, obligation, undertakings, and the respects, the modesty, the politeness and the trust for all the other people. They have a clear meaning that does not harm the others.

 

As a result, "natural responsibilities for others" are higher than freedom equality and philanthropism. They are the principle to avoid human’s kills among each other. They are something that human is born with, and hence the most basic. They will take the more loud note to sing in humans society.

 

In the real world, we see that the stronger tends no longer to emphasize the equal rights for everyone in the world, and simply emphasize self-interests. One’s own interests become the first starting point of views in any case. They have become a pure self-pursuit of happiness regardless whether the other’s interests are violated or not, in most cases they are. These now have become the concept of "the natural rights of men” for a part of people. This distorted or castrated the basic principles of "natural rights of men". To make oneself as the center of interests, it will easily become to take advantage and hurt the others. And once the other gets hurt, it will be impossible for the others not to resist. One self also won't have a peaceful day. By the upgraded murder weapon, one cannot have peaceful days. No matter how the machines are advanced and clever, they cannot replace the human at last, and cannot kill all of the other people against you and substitute everyone against you. The equality can never be realized by using the force, not to mention the philanthropism- the love. Lao Zi in ancient China once said: "people are not afraid of death, why do we threaten them with death?" So if the people are not frightened of death, Let us do not mention new weapons and killings. It is rare to ever see a nation would have not resist the foreign invaders because it is frightened of new weapons. The stronger can not violate the interests of others. On the contrary, the stronger has the responsibilities to really help weaker, it can gradually obtain the understanding from the one against you. The stronger can eventually understand that by giving peaceful days to other people, can he himself obtain peaceful days, and together share the peaceful days among the people.

 

Because "Natural rights of men" does not mention responsibilities to others, but simply tell people everyone has the right in pursuit of happiness, it is easy to make the people to understand that “I” have the infinite right to pursue my happiness. And by purely taking the point of views of oneself and by being to infinitely pursue the  happiness for oneself, the weaker will easily become the prey of the stronger, as the law of the jungle; even more men are in conflict because of pursuit of their " natural rights", as we now see the circumstances everywhere in the world. That is when I claim my rights,  you claim your same rights. People want rights from each other. The last results are that either people will fight each other viciously or they have to respect each other in a delicate and fragile balances for the time being, which are close to the principle of “natural responsibilities for others”, however people is far from to consciously realize they should be the final results due to the mutual nonaggression to the others and mutual concession and courtesy, mutual respects as the ultimate and final standard, but the temporary results gained due to the close strengths of both sides, which will easily lose the balances and people easily fall into the vicious fights again. People want the securities, it is all right. But if doing it at the expense of the others’ interests, people will suspect each other, and will threaten the opposite side (if stronger), even use force or rough activities. And it is most serious to invent nuclear bombs and missiles which can destroy each other by the movement of hands. People want the fames, this creates jealousness and envies against others, so as to ensure ones’ own reputation. Rousseau once said: "The reason we produce envy psychologically, it is due to the desires from the society, instead of the original instinct". This illustrated the jealousness and envy is created by the pursuit of happiness from the excessive demands and not by the nature. All in all, according to the current understanding of “natural rights of men"which a part of people is emphasizing now, the people is placed himself in the centre in any case, and then the people will live in the environment full of the vicious fights, suspicions and contempt.

 

As for the highest standards people should treat the others, , in his article “Moral Classics”, Lao Zi once said: “ Winding turns integrated, wronged turns truth, low-lying turns full, old turns new, few will be got, more will get confused. So a Sage sticks to this principle as the example to deal with everything all over the world. Not self praised, in turn it is more brilliant; Not self boasted, in turn it has more credits; Not self reserved, in turn it goes long.” It is dialectical about how to get along with the others. Here Lao Zi mentioned winding, wronged, low-lying, old, few, all of these are the disadvantaged states for the ordinary people. However, a sage should be happy to take them, because those disadvantaged states for the one must be good to others. It will turn out the positive factors. The Sage should not self-praised, self boasted, self reserved, because those are the behaviors to scorn and hostile to others, and the sage should try best to avoid them. Try one’s own best efforts for others, don't struggle for the empty names and don’t hold the others in contempt, don't despise the others’ existence, and don’t do it at the expense of the others. One should take the attitude of modest and prudent even at expense of one’s own interests. By doing these, it can go long time.

 

Therefore, we should well review all our own behaviors. We should not do the behaviors violating the interests and rights of other people, even for any "justice" as we thought. Because people's position is different, it may be that I see a thing is good, you see the same thing is bad. By doing this, it will probably make things even worse. Let themselves correct the evil things. History will eliminate the evil at last. Or through the UN, we can rely on the collective powers of the world that can correct the evil things the most of people commonly believe so. Therefore it will avoid from the point of view of one country. We should believe that justice will prevail over the evil. By substituting with the other’s place, and under the guise of the name of justice, and the real purpose is for oneself, one greatly harm the other’s interests, it will not be tolerated. That breaks the principle of “not to infringe on the other’s rights "in “Natural responsibilities for others". We should set up the ultimate and final standard for not to hurt the others and protect one’s own interests as a limit. Of course what we say here does not work easily and the real world will be very much different. But we speak it out, it can increase the positive power a little bit. The old universal values will cause human division, and have so many problems and ambiguous points, it is inevitably to replace by the new universal values which is more comprehensive and can promote the human unite. We should not hang on to those have been broken and incomplete conservatively, but should enthusiastically welcome the new universal values.

 

The new born power will inevitably break the balance of the global existing powers now, and will change the proportion of the relationship of the existing powers, and will change the present relations of the existing interests. But, this does not necessarily mean the existing powers have to be back down or concede. To make the concessions or not depends on the reasons of the power existences. Now there are three main reasons of the power existences: the first one is the national basic interests of their own countries, this cannot be encroached upon. By doing so, it is the aggression. It cannot be done, there is no such problem of concessions. The second reason is that due to the various historical reasons, the existing powers encroached upon the interests which originally should belong to the other countries. The existing power concerned must give up this kind of interests gradually soon or later. And according to the principle of “natural responsibilities for others”, the existing power in question originally should get ready to concede this kind of interests at any time to the countries, which should own that. The third one is the interests in the vacuum areas. The interests from that area do not belong to any country. For that part of interests, it needs not to concede or give up. There is no such problem of the concession. It is a question of how to share it with the powers concerned, it is a question how to make the overall interests larger, and how to commonly develop it and how to expend its size of the interests. The proportion of the relations of the all interests will be changed and it is certainly changed, but the number and quantities of the respective interests presently taken by the major powers will not be changed much. If there is any change, it will be only changed to grow up due to the common developments.

 

Will the new power benefit the other countries or encroach upon the other countries, this is the important watershed whether the new power is good or bad: The first kind of power, once born, will help the under developing and other countries to develop their economies by investments, foreign trades and service exchanges etc. this is a good and positive power. This is one that cannot be blockaded, and cannot be successfully blockaded. Blockers will only destroy their own names and reputations. Such a power will be reproduced in the future, such as the areas of Arab Middle East and Africa. This is the great progress of human beings, it should be welcomed. The second kind of power, once born, in the past, will carry out burning, killing and plundering and occupations. Nowadays, it will expand its military forces to other countries for other countries' natural resources, constantly start wars and invade other counties and make the other areas and other countries unsteady. In the human’s history, the worst case especially is the fascist Germany and fascist and militarism Japan before the World War II. This is a kind of evil forces indeed, it must be vigilant and to prevent against them and destroy them.

 

Countries need survival, and need live in a common homeland - our earth. That have a common destiny, this includes the internal and external affairs. For the internal, the rulers must be responsible to their people, everyone is responsible for others. For the external, a powerful country must be responsible for the other countries especially the weak countries. The powers have the obligation to help the weak countries, and that won't make any notorious stories like Germanic tribe or Yamato people are better than other human races and there would be no fascism and militarism to start the wars for other countries' natural resources, killing tens of millions of people. There are respects prevailing everywhere for the developments of other countries, and no one won't see their own system better than other systems, stubbornly wants the other countries to change their own and follow theirs, even does not care about using militaries forces and kill a hundreds of thousands of people and make people in question are displaced. There is not too much difference with notorious stories as "race" excellence; By being responsible, there would have not been terrorist attack "911"to launch, which killed thousands of the innocent people. Anyhow, before taking any actions, one should primarily think about the responsibilities for other people or other countries, and think about the "natural responsibilities for others", not only a "natural rights of men", thus having their own interests, their own countries and their own nations placed and considered at a special position at expenses of the other countries or nations.

 

Companies, factories and enterprises rely on the collective strengths to fulfill the productions. This requires that their leaders, bosses must first be responsible for others, responsible for their workers and their staff, and vice versa. And the workers or the staff has to be responsible for each other.

 

In families, the parents and children need to take their own responsibilities respectively. The parents have to take cares and to educate for their children, and when children grow up, they should help the olds and the young.

 

The reason why we respect heroes of the all countries and national heroes is because they sacrifice themselves, and take high responsibilities for others. That they are highly responsible for their nations and their countries and for other people and do it at the no expense of other countries or the other nations’ interests at all. The heroes of all countries are the examples responsible for other people. They inspire us, and deeply move us. Only when they do this at no expense of other countries and the other people at all, can they be called a hero in human history. Only we admit the "natural responsibilities for others" are supreme, can the heroes of all countries and all national heroes have lofty and supreme status in human histories.

 

According to the theory of classes, it will not persuasively criticize the principle of "natural rights of men", because workers are the individuals, for any reason, an individual needs to be equal, also needs the basic rights, but the workers much more need better treatments, and better cares. Among them they also need better cares to each other and responsibilities.

 

“Natural rights of men” have distinctive features. But the distinctive feature may not be comprehensive and overall. So, when the equality of men get preliminary confirmed and established, the limitation and the negative side of "natural rights of men" have been especially shown up nowadays. This is especially true when it has been misinterpret. The principle of "natural rights of men" only leads people into the lives full of the destructive competitions and the endless fights among people. In terms of the theory and philosophy, these behaviors are all the results of "natural rights of men" telling people they have the rights in pursue of the happiness, especially some people exaggerate and distort it as “I” has the infinite rights in pursuit of happiness. And one puts one’s own in the first position and is respected for anything absolutely regardless any other one, it has become not for the equality already, but it is for oneself, or the one’s own country, the one’s own interests and one’s own nation at the expense of other people and other countries, and the other people’s interests. That’s made the former theoretically told people in desperation that people have to give up a part or even all of the basic rights to establish a community – the country.

 

In front of the personal pursuit of happiness and the common pursuit of the happiness which ask for responsibilities for others, Rousseau chose the first one so that he could well fight against inequality, and in the efforts to collectively pursue happiness -- -- -- -- -- - to set up a governments, he told everyone to abandon all of his rights. In his <social contract>, Rousseau said: By joining together into civil society, each one abandon their claims of natural rights", "and, since such dedication without reservation, the collective is perfect, everyone will not overly make requirements: as long as there is one person who holds his right, he will sooner or later, in a particular case, require something special on things related with individual and society, will not be bound by any authority"(translated according Chinese). Rousseau here called people to abandon all of his basic rights. This reflects the theory of "natural rights of men" has major defects, which we mentioned before. To abandon their basic rights, it is impossible and will not be necessary as well. And all people need is that properly limits their various and basic rights, that attach most importance to the other’s interests, to be responsible for other’s interests, do not hurt the other’s interests. That will be enough. In human society it can't be advocated that a person unlimitedly pursue their own happiness and property at the expense of the interests of others. It is completely selfish not to care about the others. It must set up the sense of responsibilities for the other. It must depend on the equality as a limit for everyone’s activities, not the equality alone. These two points of view have a big difference. This limit complies with the level of the human’ s production on the times. We must take a starting point of views of the happiness of all people, up to the cost of our own interests. This is very clearly stated in the basic principle of “Natural responsibilities for others”. Therefore whenever there is the principle of "Natural responsibilities for others”, there are the people having the spirit of humility and modest as the Chinese predecessors taught us; and people will initiatively limit their excessive demands, and live in the fine realm of the harmony; the human beings will not be self-destroyed in vicious competitions; people will survive in common collective lives and labors to pursue the happiness together; people can establish common communities—our countries and the world organization to well manage for whatever times. (revised on 20/6/2015)



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