财新传媒
位置:博客 > 冯毅 > 人类的共同体,人类的共同命运

人类的共同体,人类的共同命运

Human Community, Human common Destiny
(English translation follows)
 
人类比历史任何时期都危险,因为伴随着可以毁灭整个人类几十次的原子武器,但人类也是比任何时期都充满了希望,因为智慧科技的发明将人类最优长的大脑成倍地并将几乎无限地放大其功能。因此已几乎形成 “一荣俱荣,一毁俱毁”。人类只有“俱荣”的方向可选择,就是建造人类的共同体才是人类的唯一出路。因为人类有共同的命运使这共同体成为可能。共同的命运基本就是战争与和平,繁荣与落后,民主与集中。
 
战争与和平事关人类的生存与灭亡;繁荣与落后事关人类的经济发展,贫穷与富裕,公平正义;民主与集中事关长期以来到现在为止,各国的权力在统治者与被统治者--人民之间是否有合理的分配,因此它决定着人类如何在战争与和平,繁荣与落后不同前途的选择。人类有共同的语言,共同的利益,才有共同的命运, 才能构建人类的共同体。
  
中美两国,一个是社会主义的堡垒,一个是资本主义的大本营,是世界第一和第二大经济体,它们之间是否合作好,决定着共同体的前途的重要部分,当然还需要其它国家的参与。共同体由国际间的经贸文体等的交流与各自国内的利益关系所决定。各国之间有共同点也有不同点,而国内的利益决定着国际的行为。共同体显然需要国内的利益这一更深层次的相容。
 
比较美国及其他国家与中国国内情况,中国社会主义的现实是能对资本主义在工农商等界团结利用包容和改进,积极发展个人生产的民主权力,充分发挥个人奋斗及资本的积极作用,鼓励万众创业。中国几千年封建及帝王的社会,它的影响很深很大,借助个人的积极努力和资本能极大的推动生产发展和极大程度的摆脱封建及帝王社会各种落后关系及其不利影响对生产力的束缚,中国因而实现了快速前行。这些和其它国家有共识也有不同。 
 
讲清人类主要的两种制度的相同点和不同点是构建人类共同体的理论和实践的基础。相同点使构建共同体成为可能,不同点是要解决的问题。资本主义是建立在市场经济和私有制的基础上。市场有它的高效性,资源配置的精准性,但由于同行之间利益相互冲突,信息相互封锁,这必会造成整体经济的盲目性和不易进行有效科学的管理;私有制能激发个人极大的生产积极性,但同时也会制造社会的不公,贫富分化,不要说私人企业投资偏好是投资小见效快的行业如房地产,电脑科技类和电商等,而不是基础设施。这些先天不足在经济有大量的发展余地时不明显,而显其优点,但经济发展到一定规模之时,便凸显其致命缺点,造成“中等收入陷阱”。资本主义讲保护私人财产,并将此作为一切的底线和核心,把它看作是最终的制度,万灵妙药。中国的社会主义也是建立市场经济的基础上,也部分承认私有制的积极作用,但把私有制是看作人类发展与进步必经的中间环节。社会主义也讲大众创业,讲保护私人财产。不过社会主义在讲保护私人财产的同时,也讲减少贫富差别,并认真执行,也讲共同富裕。社会主义本来就是过渡期,它自然也会是两种制度的混合期,这体现在共同依靠集体努力和个人奋斗,体现在共同依靠国有企业和民营企业。这两种做法各有各自的优点和缺点,要发扬各自的优点,控制和改进各自的缺点(另见文)。
 
私有制产生于极其贫穷的原始社会晚期,是原始社会瓦解的重要根源。但直到资本主义时期,私有制才发展到了顶峰,发展到了唯一看重金钱--资本的社会,并反对其他一切束缚生产的关系。因此这对生产来说,是一个极大的解放,财富私有起到了鼓励个人的生产积极性,这种鼓励作用在生产条件比较艰苦的条件下客观来讲是必要的。而在这种鼓励下,经济得到了长足的发展。在人类历史的长河中在一定期间内,私有制能起着积极作用。然而人类生产力和科技的发展如计算机,互联网,物联网的使用,在科技进步强大的帮助下,集体努力变得更为有效更为力,而私有制的积极作用终会完全或大部分消失,只剩下其在历次经济危机中表现的破坏作用。然而只有公有制才使社会大规模的集体努力成为可能,它的优长也才会表现出来。人类终将学会计划自己社会的经济,正像现在资本主义私有制社会的汪洋大海中,却主要是由一个个组织严密的大型公司和大型银行所组成所表现。而这些大型公司还在不断地形成和变大。在这些公司与银行中绝没有部门的私有,而有的是整体预算和业务的整体规划。对这些预算和规划来说,部门的私有只会成为阻碍,因而绝无容身之地,这种状况对一个社会来讲将也是同样的。富足也使财富的私有变得毫无意义,正如当外面更好被保管的并可随时任意领取到所需的粮食,当永远免除你不能随时满足的顾虑时,一般你就不会在家里自己储存过量的粮食。也就是说当你能随时满足并去享受各种财富时,就没有必要像财富相对或绝对匮乏时那样把多余的财富和任何公司非要记在自己的名下,保存在你的银行账户中,不让有需要的人去分享,以保持和提高自己富足的生活水准。贫穷是私有制产生的历史根源,它也会随着地球上贫穷的消失而消失,因那时私有已不再需要。人类最终将跨越私有制的门槛,实现人人都有平等的权力享受人类创造的富足的财富,这一更为彻底,更为公平的目标。这才可以称为人类最终的目标。我们知道私有制会产生并积累起贫富差别和不公,目前已发展成巨大的问题。私有制是和社会主义最终阶段形成差别。从大处讲,尊重每一个人,尊重每一个人的权力是人权的基础,是国与国协调相处的基石,是民主基本的要求; 从小处讲是夫妻和谐的基础。相互尊重就没有伤害。私有制使人们不能和谐相处,相互实质尊重,因私有使人们的利益相冲突。私有和贪欲撕裂夫妻的和谐。虽然私有是人类物质匮乏的必然产物,它对生产有历史的积极作用,但它毕竟是人类心灵的恶魔。当然有些人讲人类永远不可能创造出那样足够多的财富时,看看当今世界人均GDP及其历史,并现已达一万美元的事实和当今智慧科技的发展,客观的人就会闭上嘴。
 
资产阶级讲民主,自由平等,但这并不意味着这些文明思想是资产阶级专属的,社会主义的核心价值也包括民主。资产阶级按其阶级本性是唯利是图,并反对一切影响产生利润的利害关系。这种反封建的彻底性和发展生产的能力有有利的一面,有利于经济建设和构建人类共同体,但要防止消极面。美国及西方不是要建立自由秩序的国际社会吗?但什么是自由秩序的国际社会?我们认为就是建造一个经济贸易金融和人员自由往来,并不受意识形态和技术封锁的影响平等自由往来的国际社会,文化意识哲学可自由发展与包容的,也就是民主的国际社会,这就是人类的共同体的目标。但决不能按一个国家的模型建立各国的社会。某些国家不能适应这样的自由民主的社会,把自由民主限制在他们意志所能接受的狭小范围内,不接受各国民主自由的选择和决定,他们因在自由民主面前的失败,而打算另起炉灶,建立他们所谓的自由国家联盟。但他们另起炉灶的动机是不接受各国自由民主的选择和决定,而是要执行他们自己的意志,也决定另起的炉灶也决不是自由民主的产物,而只能是他们一言堂的天下,因此必然会失败。这也反映他们所提倡自由民主的虚伪性。当然根据各国的不同情况有一个成长发育期,但要前进,不要后退。但就怕不同的人口是心非,不按常理的认识 。
 
在资本主义社会之中,产生了“人民治理(rule of the people)”这一民主的优秀思想,这和中国所讲的“人民当家作主”是相通的,“伟大的思想总是相同的”。基本的事实是我们不得不说中国很好地处理了民主与集中的关系,很好地摆正了这关系的位置,使其正好适合中国的国情。这使中国取得了快速发展。除了快速而较长期的经济发展,你在实际中还能做什么呢?但中国不仅要在国内讲民主,而且要在国际上各国之间讲民主,讲两国和多国之间要通过谈判协商,这一民主的方法解决矛盾,讲世界的大事要通过联合国用民主的方法討论并做决定,民主是共同体和自由平等的国际社会的基础。这是那些习惯用军事或用武力表达自己强权意愿的人所不愿接受的。
 
人类在与贫穷的斗争中,集中了个人的力量形成集体的强大力量,努力改变贫穷。就像两人在拳击中,一方集中全部力量給对方致命的一击,将对方击倒,对方抱怨对手为什么将自己的力量那样集中,这是“没有本事的行为”。这抱怨是那样的可笑可怜。两人拳击的目的只有一个,将对手击倒,同样在与贫穷的斗争中目的只有一个即:全力发展经济战胜贫穷,不管是用集体的力量还是用个人(私人)的力量,怎么有效,就采取什么,这绝没有道德的问题。不道德的是“贫穷”,是损人利己的行为和对他人的抢夺。因为意识形态的偏见,而不看集体的力量有效或没有效而一律采取贬低的做法,既不符合人类远古时代与猛兽斗争的历史又不符合现实的中国成功的经验。
 
我们在讲保护私人财产时,同时也看到人类集体共同努力对生产的伟大力量,所以我们同时也要讲适当的集中,并形成民主集中制。很多国家不懂或不讲,但并非不存在。民主集中是中国能成功的主要保证,是毛泽东首先提出的。这是对民主概念所进行的巨大推进,是将民主推向更加彻底的地步。集中绝不是集权,更不是独裁,真理多跨出一步就成谬论。
 
美国政府为什么要利用金融政策干预经济,如调整利率和税率?这不是用政府,这集体的力量吗?这些行为适当不适当要看最后的效果。国有企业像一国养的军队。军队和平时看是个巨大的“浪费”,不生产任何产品和利润,但在战胜敌人和保持自己稳定发展是不可缺少的强大力量。私人经济正常时看比国有经济有效率,但私人经济的盲目性不可避免地会不时带来经济危机,而每次经济危机会对社会经济造成巨大的破坏。这大大降低了私人经济的平均效率。这是本质问题,不可改变。国有经济从规律上讲没有盲目性,因有计划。盲目的是我们对国有经济和计划客观规律的认识和把控,是主观的问题,这是可能进行改善的。因此,有理由利用两方面的力量,互相取长补短。
 
与时俱进,既用我们熟悉的语言和道理也要学会用新的语言和道理让世界更易于接受,讲清我们制度的优长。在如此广大国土和众多人口的基础上,在如此短的时间里,将中国建成了世界第二大经济体,必定有让世界折服的优长。不要抱着口号式的语言和道理,尤其面对的是整个世界而不光是中国。这样能较快的取得世界的认同,更有利建造人类命运共同体。
 
人类共同体因为有共同的利益和共同的语言,也就有共同的命运,因此有了发展壮大的可能。在世界各国人民的努力下,人类有智慧有能力必将避免毁灭的道路,走向光明的未来。
 
Human Community, Human Common Destiny 
 
Human beings are the most dangerous than any time in history, because they are accompanied by atomic weapons that can destroy entire human race dozens of times. But humans are also the most hopeful than any time, as the inventions of intelligent technologies multiply and will almost infinitely magnify the functions of the human brains, the most outstanding one that human has. So it has almost become "once prosperous, all prosperous or once destroyed, entire destroyed". Only the direction of “Common Prosperity” can be chosen. That is building human community, the only way out for human, because human has common destiny which made the community possible. It is basically the war and peace, the prosperity and backward, the democracy and centralization.
 
War and peace are related to the survival and extinction of mankind, the prosperity and backward are related to the economic development, rich and poor and equality and justice among mankind; democracy and centralization are related to whether the all countries’ powers are reasonably distributed or not between the ruling classes and the ruled classes i.e. the people, therefore they determine how human being choose the futures between the war and peace, prosperity and backward. The human community has the common language, common interests and therefore common destiny,only that can human build community.
  
China and the United States, one is a bastion of socialism; one is the stronghold of capitalism and is the first and second economies in the world. The co-operation between the two is good or not, it will significantly determine the foreground of the community, of course other countries are absolutely needed for the community. The community is shaped by international exchanges of economies and the interests and relations within their internal countries. However the interests and relations within the countries determine the international behaviors. The community obviously needs and means to the compatibility of those within the countries, this even deeper layers. We should take calm and objective views about capitalism. That is the views of its positive roles in the historical progress and the rationality of its concrete practices; also views of historical limitations of its class natures, as well as the serious flaws of its concrete practices avoiding the views from left and right sides.  
 
To compare those within USA and other foreign countries with China, China's socialism currently can unite, utilize, tolerate and improve the capitalism in industry, agriculture and commerce etc, and have actively developed the democratic powers of individuals for production, fully carry forward the efforts of individuals and positive functions of capitals, encourage everyone to start businesses. China's feudal and Imperial Societies have thousands of years in the past. Their influences are very deep and huge. With the help of individual active efforts and capitals which can raise productions a great deal and can get rid of the bondage of the various backward relations and negative influences of feudal and imperial societies, therefore China has achieved fast moving forward. There are the similarities as well as differences with other countries. 
 
Talk clear about the similarities and differences between the two main systems of human beings are the foundation of the theory and practice of constructing the human community. The similarities make it possible to build a community, and the differences are the problems to be solved. Capitalism is based on market economy and private ownership. The market has high efficiency and accuracies of resource configurations. However, because of the conflicts of interests and the information blockade among same industries, it has caused the overall economic blindness and cannot be easily, efficiently and scientifically organized and managed. Private ownership can stimulate the individual's great enthusiasm for productions, but also has generated social injustice and polarization between the rich and the poor at same time, let alone to say private investment preferences which are to invest in smaller and quick profit businesses such as properties, computer industry and electronic commerce etc, rather than infrastructures. When the economies have a lot of rooms to develop, these deficiencies are not obvious, rather show its advantages. But when the economies develop to certain scales, their fatal shortcomings will be so obvious and shaped “The middle-Income Trap”. Capitalism protects private property and takes it as the bottom line and the core for its economy and sees it as the ultimate system, a panacea. China socialism is also mainly building on the market economy and partially recognizes economic positive effects of private ownership and whereas regards private ownership as the intermediate link in human development and progress. China also talks about private efforts that can start and run of businesses and protects private property as well, so there are a bit same languages. But while China is talking about protection of private properties, it also talks about reducing the difference between rich and poor, and earnestly enforcing it and speaking of common prosperity as well. Socialism is transitional period by its nature, so naturally it is mixture of the two systems. These are embodied in commonly relying collective efforts and individual struggles. The two systems each have their own merits and demerits. The merits need be played their full roles, and demerits need to be controlled and improved (see separate article).
 
The private ownership emerged in the late primitive and extremely poor society, which is an important source of the disintegration of primitive society. But it wasn't until the time of capitalism,the private ownership reached its peak that was the societies which take views as money – capitals are only valued things and have been opposed to every relations which bandaged productions. It is a great liberation for productions and has encouraged the huge enthusiasm of individual for productions. This kind of encouragement under the tough production conditions has been necessary objectively, Thus under this encouragement, the economy has been quickly developed. In the river of human’s long history, proper privatization has played a positive role objectively during certain period of time. This can be of help, but should be on guard against its negative side. Whereas with help from the progress of production and sciences and technologies such as computers, internet and internet of things, the positive effect of collective efforts will be more efficient and powerful. Therefor the advantages of the private ownership will gradually wholly or largely disappear, only leaving its destructions as ever happened in the economic crises every time in history. And only the public ownership can make collective efforts possible in large scale and its advantages will be manifested. Humans beings will eventually learn to plan their social economies, just as in the vast sea of societies of private ownership of the capitalism, the main parts of the societies are formed and performed by large individual privately owned companies and banks in which there are no any their departments privately owned within these large companies and banks which are still formed and growing. There are only budgets and planning for the whole companies. The privately owned departments will only become obstacles and exist absolutely no any place in it. Same circumstances will be for the entire societies. Affluence will also make keeping private wealth meaningless. It is like the case when you can be satisfied by the better preserved and rich food outside at any time, and exempt your unfulfilled concerns forever, generally you will not want to store excessive food at home. As if you will not want to keep superfluous wealth and any business in your own name or keep them in your account at banks when you can meet to enjoy all wealth needed at any time, because there is no need for you to be doing that when the wealth has been relatively or absolutely short and you would not allow needy to share them in order to maintain and improve your own affluent living standards and your vanity as it could only show your immoral mentality. Poverty is the historical root of private ownership, and it will fade away along with the poverty disappearance on the earth. At that time the private ownership is no longer needed. Human beings will eventually step over the threshold of private ownership and achieve the goal that everyone will have equal rights to enjoy the rich wealth created by human. Only this goal can be called a final goal, a thorough and fairer goal for everyone.  Respect each other and respect every person's rights. From big perspective, to respect others is the foundation of human rights, the footstone of the harmony between countries to get along with each other, the basic requirements of democracy; from small perspective, it is the basis for harmonious life between husbands and wives. There will be no harm if mutual respect. Private ownership makes people unable to get along with each other concordantly, and mutually respect in real sense because of conflict interests among mankind caused by private ownership. Private ownership and greed tear up the harmonious lives between husbands and wives. Although private ownership is the inevitable product when mankind is in scarcity of material for productions and lives, it has a historical positive effect on production, after all, it is the demon in man’s psychological soul. When some people say that humans will never be able to produce enough wealth like that, but when they look the fact that the average per capita GDP in history and the current world same is about USD 10,000 and the development of today's intellectual technology, objective men then will shut their mouths.
 
The capitalist speaks of democracy and freedom and equality (that are included in democracy), but that does not mean that these are the exclusive rights of the capitalism. According to its class nature, the capitalists can be called as mercenary, valued only money, but it opposes all relations that harm productions. This kind of thoroughness or completion of anti-feudalism and promoting productions can be of help, can benefit our economic developments and building human community. But it is necessary to be on guard against its negative side. Don’t the United States and the west want to build a international community of liberal orders? But what is the international community of liberal order? We think that is building orders of international free and equal exchanges of economies,trades, finance and personnel among counties without the influences purely from ideologies and technical blockades, cultures, ideologies , philosophies may be freely developed contained and tolerated. That is democracy in international society and the goal of human community in fact. However that is by no means to build societies of all countries in accordance with a single model. Some country cannot adapt themselves to such liberalization and democracy of society, limits the liberalization and democracy within such narrow range that they can accept. They cannot accept the choices and the decisions of democracy and liberalization. Because of their failure in front of liberalization and democracy, they intend to rebuild a so called “the Union of Liberate Countries” they choose. But the motive of their rebuilding is because they cannot accept the choices and decisions of liberalization and democracy of most countries, and the execution of their own will alone, therefore this rebuilding is by no means a product of liberalization and democracy, it will only be a place of their own right of speaking alone. So it will inevitably fail. It also reflects more or less the hypocrisy of their promotion for liberalization and democracy. Of course, according to different countries, there is a growth period, but we need to move forward and not retreat. But it is afraid of different people, who think different from their verbal expressions and speak not in common sense.  
                      
The democratic and advanced thought of “rule of the people” i.e. democracy were generated in the capitalist society. This is interlinked with China's saying “People are the masters who have final say”, “Great minds are always the same”. Basically we have to say China well handle the relation between democracy and centralization, well positions this relation just suitable to the situation in China so that can achieve this fast development. What else can you do in reality except the economic development of fast and longer time? But China talks about democracy not only within the country, but also in the world among countries. These are dialogues and negotiations between the two countries and among countries i.e. the democratic ways, through which the contradictions between countries will be resolved, and that the world's events are discussed and decided through the United Nations, this democratic way. The democracy is foundation of the human community and liberal and equal orders for international society. This is reluctantly accepted by those who are accustomed to use military or force to express their mighty wills.   
 
In the struggle against poverty, China has used the all powerful efforts of collectives and individuals. Like two men in boxing, one party focused all powers to give a fatal blow to the opponent, and knocked him down, the other party complained “why did you focused your strength like that? This is “short of capability”. The complaint is so pathetic and ridiculous. Boxing between two has only one purpose that is beat your opponent. It is same as fight against poverty. The fight has only one purpose that is to develop economy to overcome poverty with all efforts. Despite of use of the collective strengths or the individual (private) strengths, whatever effective it can be used. There is absolutely no moral problem. What is immoral is “the poverty”, harm others in order to benefit one’s own, the plunder of the others. Because of ideological bias, some ones do not take look at the collective force whether that is effective or not and just belittle it. Such doing is neither in consistent with the primitive times in which mankind fought against the strong beasts nor successful experiences China now has gained. 
 
While we talk about protection for the private assets, we have further seen the collective efforts to generate the great strengths for productions. So at same time we also have to speak the appropriate centralization. And therefore this has shaped a system of democracy and centralization. Many countries do not understand it or do not want to speak of it. However it does not mean this system is not existent in reality. The democracy and centralization is the main guarantee for China's success, and is first proposed by Mao Zedong. This is a great advance of the concept of democracy, and it pushes democracy to a more complete meaning. Centralization is neither autocracy nor dictatorship, and the truth with one more step will become a fallacy. 
 
Why did the U.S. government use financial policy to intervene the economy, such as adjusting the interest rates and tax rates? Isn't that use of the powers of the government, the collective strength? These actions are appropriate or not have to be decided by their final effectiveness or not. State owned enterprises like an army a country keeps, it is “a huge waste” at peaceful time and not to produce any products and profits, but it is an indispensable and powerful force to defeat the enemy and maintain country’s steady development. The private economy is more efficient than the state owned economy in normal times, but the blindness of the private economy inevitably bring about economic crises. These crises have caused huge destructions to the social economy every time in history. These have greatly reduced the average efficiencies of the private economy. And this is inherent problems and cannot be improved. There is no blindness in the state economy from the views of the objective laws, because there are plans. Blind is our understanding and control of the objective law of state economy and planning. That is subjective problems that can be possibly improved. Therefore, we have reasons to take advantages of the strengths of both sides to make up for the shortcomings. 
 
Keep abreast with the times. We’d better both use the languages and reasons that we are familiar with and learn to use the language and senses that are new and easy to accept by the world, talk clearly the best points of our systems, the reasons of things. In such a short time, on the basis of such a vast land and a large population, China is made the world's second largest economy; there will be surely convincing points to the world. Don't be stubborn to the old languages and senses in slogans type especially in front of the whole world and not just China. By doing so, we can achieve even faster acceptance of the world and benefit to build human community.  
 
Because human’s common community has common interests and common language, and therefore the common destiny, so the community has the possibility to develop and expand. In the efforts of the peoples of the world, human beings have the wisdom and ability to avoid the path of destruction and but the bright future.
 
 
 
 
推荐 1